Turning the NB oil pressure gauge into a REAL gauge.
Full scale, quick response (no damping), behaves like the real gauges in the í90-í94 cars!
This How-To contains two sets of modifications for the 1999-2005 Miata oil pressure gauges. The easy mod involves removing the excessive damping from the oil pressure gauge. You will get the same non-linear response as before but with quick needle response. The more advanced mod involves disassembling and unwinding the thin wire inside the oil pressure gauge. When completed the advanced mod will produce a fully functional oil pressure gauge. The needle will move quickly and the tick marks will (if desired and trimmed correctly) correspond to 0, 30, 60, and 90 PSI.
If you are reading this you likely know that the NB Miata doesn't have a real oil pressure gauge. It has a 7psi switch. Below 7psi the switch is closed and the gauge reads 0. Over 7psi the switch is open and the gauge reads ~2/3rds. Beyond that the gauge will never move. Not like Mazda gave it anything good to say.
In an attempt to gain some actual functionality (needed or otherwise) many of us have tried replacing the original NB oil pressure switch with VDO or other brand oil pressure senders. Often people have used the VDO-360003 0-80psi, 10-180ohm sender. Some people have also used the VD0-360086 0-100psi, 10-180ohm sender. I have included modification recommendations for both senders.
Now, Before I go any further I would like to apologies for being excessively wordy. With luck you didn't have to read every one of them.
|The schematic to the
right shows the factory oil pressure circuit.
From the factory:
R1 = 180 ohms
R2 = 100 ohms
Coil A: Consists of three sets of windings (1-3) and has a total resistance of 180 ohms.
Coil B: This is the inner most winding in the motor. It has a resistance of 100 ohms.
Oil Sender: This is the VDO or other brand oil pressure sender.
|Using the conventions for winding
conventions I describe in detail below, the factory gauge has four
sets of windings.
Note: Because I my digital camera seems to have trouble taking the close ups I really need for this write up I've included some quick CAD illustrations. I used blue rather than white for the plastic part of the gauge because it shows better in the illustrations
Coil A (three sets)
1. XXX turns in the 10:30 direction. (The outermost set/the one you see when you look at the gauge)
2. XXX turns in the 7:30 direction.
3. XXX turns in the 10:30 direction
Coil B (one set)
1. XXX turns in the 7:30 direction.
Sanborn has a very good write up about changing out the sender and
doing a simple resistor to adjust the scale.
I'm including a link to his web page because he does an excellent job of illustrating the installation of the sender and has a discussion the resistor mod.
The resistor mod/moved needle with a VDO sender are an improvement over the dummy gauge but it still has the following drawbacks.
1. Excessive damping: Yes, the needle does move but very slowing. A quick blip of the throttle shows virtually no needle movement. Mazda wanted it to look like the gauge was really doing something. It would be a bit odd if the gauge just sprung up the moment the engine started. This was the part of the problem I was originally try to solve.
2. Non-linear output with lots of compression at the top end: While you could tell the difference between hot and cold oil at idle, it was almost impossible to tell the difference between 50 and 60 psi. Correcting this problem wasn't my original intent but while I had everything apart...
Damping: The gauge is damped with a small amount of viscous grease between part of the needle stator and the white plastic wire form. Remove the grease and the needle moves as fast as the tach or speedo.
The Response Curve: This one is a bit trickier. The way the coils are wound largely controls the motion of the needle. Resistors can be used to trim the movement but depending on the windings you can't do much to change the response curve. Mazda intended this gauge to show 0 with 0 ohm or resistance. They wanted it to show 2/3rds with infinite resistance. It's going to be hard to get trim resistors to allow it to show more when our sender only has a 10-180 ohm range.
This method will improve the response speed of the needle. It will not correct the non-linearity.
I originally unwound the windings on my gauge because I wanted to know how it was damped with the hopes of reducing the damping. I found the grease described above. Unwinding the entire gauge to remove the grease isn't the easiest task. Fortunately another Miata forum member found an easier solution that doesnít involve unwinding.
SlicksterV suggests cleaning the gauge with Isopropyl alcohol. He posted the following about his method:
I decided to approach the problem in a different direction.
I removed the oil pressure gauge, pressure gauge needle, then the gauge face (by removing the 2 black screws) so the inner coils are visible. I am just too chicken to perform the extreme surgery to get to the grease so I decided to use 99% isopropyl alcohol & ultrasonic cleaner.
I filled the cleaner with alcohol so the gauge body is fully submerged. Caution, 99% alcohol is highly flammable so continue at your own risk & in a very well ventilated area. I performed this task in my bathroom with the exhaust fans on. My assumption was the alcohol will dissolve the grease & the ultrasonic waves will assist the alcohol to reach to the grease easier. Since my cleaner has no lid I covered the cleaner with a vinyl file folder & left the cleaner running for about an hour. I periodically check the level of alcohol (without a lid 100% alcohol evaporates very quickly) & move the gauge around.
I removed the gauge body from the cleaner & let the alcohol evaporated for about 30 minutes. I reassembled everything, let the car warmed up a bit & noticed the gauge responded much quicker than before. Too bad I didn't fully warmed up the engine due to rain (just washed & Zaino'ed my car yesterday) but I am very happy with the result.
For reference a picture of the gauge motor with the needle and gauge face removed is shown below.
And the follow up:
I finally had a chance to go for a longer drive tonight with a fully warm engine testing out the oil pressure gauge "full" deflection & the damping is totally gone.
My conclusion is that alcohol & ultrasonic cleaner can be used to remove the damping grease.
Of course not everyone has access to an ultrasonic cleaner. Other forum members tried soaking the part in other solvents for 24 hours or so and achieved similar results. I have not personally tried this method so I can not personally recommend any particular solvents.
Note: Remove the gauge face and needle. DO NOT put them in the solvent bath.
For those who want it all. For those who aren't afraid... or are to foolish to realize they should be...
If you are good with soldering irons, donít mind the risk of messing with the guts of the gauge and or have too much time on your hands but insufficient funds for a turbo this is the next stepÖ time to change the coil windings!
Warning: If you go forward with this I am assuming you have some knowledge and comfort with soldering, working with simple resistor circuits, multimeters etc. You should also be comfortable doing a bit of improvising to create something to help wind the wires off the coils and back on the coils. These arenít 100% step by step. If this stuff scares you just do Version 1.
I cannot stress enough the importance of labeling things (or even better taking pictures) as you disassemble the gauge. Also, the coils are wound from a near hair thin copper wire. It takes VERY little force to snap this wire. You can splice it if needed (ask me how I know) but who wants to do that.
To complete this mod you will need:
-Various 1/4 watt resistors. For the 100psi sender I needed 330ohm and 2.2k ohm 1/4 watt resistors. For the 80psi sender I needed 470 ohm and 220 ohm resistors. A 10 ohm resistor or variable resistor is highly recommended for testing.
-100psi or 80psi oil sender with 10-180 ohm range. The 0-100psi sender can be used to give a 0-90 psi range (same as the factory gauge). A 0-80psi sender can also be used with different resistors. The gauge will still be set up to show 0, 30, 60 and 90psi. Sure the sender only goes to 80psi but the gauge doesn't know that. My speedo goes to 150mph but I suspect my Miata can't quite reach that speed.
A 12V power supply (Makita drill battery in my case) is recommended but not required for testing.
|The construction of
the windings and core.
The gauge motor is basically made from just a few parts. You have the wire which is would around a two part white plastic former /core. With all the wire removed the two halves of the plastic core can be pulled apart. Inside you will find a black, round, magnetic disc. The grease in question acts on part of this disc and the plastic core. With all the wire removed removing the grease is a simple mater of wiping it away with a rolled napkin.
The factory configuration consists of 4 sets of windings. When looking at the motor you can see layers of wires wraped around the plastic part Each time the wire changes its direction of wind that's a new set. Each set is split in half running on either side of the needle post.
It is important to get our bearings when working with the gauge motor. Orient the motor so it faces you as if it were installed in the dash. The shaft will face towards you. The OIL terminal will be at top and the IGN terminal will be on the right. In this orientation you see the coils are wrapped at 45 degrees from vertical. The coils can be wrapped in two directions for each orientation. For instance, a coil can go from 7:30 to 1:30 or 1:30 to 7:30. It is very important to note the difference between 7:30 to 1:30 and 1:30 to 7:30. The difference can cause the needle to move backwardsÖ ask me how I know.
|(pic of the gauge
motor with out resistors)
(the windings and metal can arenít shown in the illustration)
|Lets get pulling things apart
Remove the needle and gauge face from the gauge motor. Unsolder the resistors. With a pair of pliers, carefully remove the three terminals from the bottom of the gauge. They are a one way push in deal. It takes a bit of force to remove them but they will come out. Label them so you know where they go later on. Label their location on the metal can and the plastic core.
|Next remove the metal can. The can is heat
staked to the plastic core via some posts through the can bottom.
Cut off the 4 mushroom shaped posts. Next push the core out of the
can. I found it was easiest to push on the parts of the core where
the terminals used to be.
|Congrats, now you have just the
windings and core of the gauge. Itís time to note a few parts.
Pressed into the plastic you will see three wiring terminals, GND,
OIL and IGN. GND and IGN both have one wire. The OIL terminal has
two. As part of this job you will have to either cut the wires off
these terminals or unsolder them. I chose to unsolder them.
Start by bending the coil wire terminals up away from the coils. This gets them out of the way for unwinding and allows you to get a soldering iron on them.
Also... remember the wire is very thin and easy to break so BE CAREFUL with it!
|To make winding easier I used to small electric fans like you might find in a computer power supply. Using some double sided adhesive I taped an empty solder spool to one and the gauge core to the other. A few little cut up foam pads helped mount up the awkwardly shaped core. Now I could wind the wire off or on the core simply by spinning the part with my hand. A short bit of wire to the gauge to make it easier to spin with one finger. I didnít use this twin fan idea the first time I unwound and rewound the gauge. With the spool I just had the spool and core sitting on the table. It took me about 4 hours to unwind then rewind the gauge. With the fans acting as little turn tables I was able to unwind and wind the coils in about 45 minutes including stopping to solder and change direction.|
|Unsolder or cut the wire connected
to the IGN terminal. I used a sharp solder tip to unwind the wire.
Start winding it onto the spool.
After unwinding coils 1-3, unsolder or cut the wires from the OIL terminal. Unwind coil 4. You can now open up the two plastic parts that support the coils. Inside you will see the needle stator and the damping grease. I just used a bit of napkin to wipe the grease away.
The little black part in the second photo is a magnet or ferrite block that magnetically returns the needle to 0.
Location of Grease
Now itís time to put it all back together with a new wind.
|In the illustrations the arrow
will always point a long the wire to the spool of wire that is
waiting to be wound/ to the end of the wire. So for the first
set of winds it points to the end of the wire that will solder to
OIL. For the later coils it points at the end of the wire that
solders to IGN. Use your fingers to guide the wire onto the
core while you wind it. Keep a little bit of tension on the
wire so the coils aren't too loose. Again, be careful, the
wire is thin.
Coil 4: Wrap 350 turns of wire around the cord in the same orientation and direction as the inner most turns of wire. For those who didnít write down the orientation of that inner most bit, hold the gauge in front of you with the shaft facing you, with the oil terminal at 12:00 and the GND terminal at 3:00. Each time the wire comes around it should start (rise from the table) the 7:30 position and finish (set/goes back towards the table) at the 1:30 position. Put half of those 350 turns on one side of the needle shaft and the other half on the other side.
As there are a lot of turns, I recommend counting in blocks of say 50 turns then putting a tick mark on paper. It also allows you to be a bit more absent minded when winding. Also, watch out for snagging the thin wire on the white plastic gauge former while winding things up. You want all the wire inside of the former, not hung up on the edges.
1:30 Direction of wind, 350 turns
|Next coil: Change the direction of
the wire so it rises at the 10:30 and sets at the 4:30. 550 turns,
one half on each side of the needle shaft. Any time I change
direction or solder the wire to a terminal I try to wrap it around
one of the plastic posts the same way Mazda did when they originally
wound the gauge. I donít know if itís needed but I feel better doing
it that way.
Part way through this you should run across what used to be the bit of wire that was soldered to the OIL terminal. If you cut the wire you will now need to join the two wire sections. If you didnít cut the wire you still need to keep the solder covered wire away from the rests of the coils. I made one turn of wire around one of the plastic post, put the soldered section of wire in the hole in the white plastic post then made one more quick turn around the post to hold it in place. After than, continue wrapping.
Wrapping wire around the posts
4:30 Direction of wind, 550 turns
Locations for the soldered joint in the wire
|When you get to the end of the 530
turns, wrap a bit of the wire around the
OIL terminal and solder it in place. I very carefully used a knife to scrape
off a bit of the wireís enamel so the solder could touch bare wire. Iím not sure if this is needed. Congratulations, you have created a new Coil B consisting of two sets of windings.
Lets get on to the new outer most coil
|Wrap the rest of the wire (~900 turns) in the opposite direction (rise at 4:30, set at 10:30). Again, split the winds between the two sides of the needle shaft.||
10:30 direction of wind, ~900 turns.
Time for new resistors
|We will change the values of R1 and
R2 and add a new resistor (R trim) going from the OIL terminal to
the GND terminal on the bottom of the gauge.
I have included resistor values for both the 0-100psi and 0-80psi senders that should result in tick marks at 0, 30, 60, and 90psi. However, those values assumed the sender has a linear output. It assumes that 50 psi should result in a resistance of (180-10)*50% = 85 ohm. Unfortunately what limited testing I could do with the sender and my experience with the sender in my car suggests that the VDO output is somewhat non-linear and reads a bit high (85 ohms at 40-45psi rather than at 50).
R1: Do not change the 180 ohm resistor.
R2 for 100psi sender: Use a combination of resistors to create a 77 ohm resistor between IGN and OIL (replaces the 100 ohm resistor). I used the 100 ohm and a 330 ohm resistor in parallel (1/4 watt resistor is fine for the 330 ohm resistor)
R2 for 80psi sender: Use a combination of resistors to create an 87 ohm resistor. I used a 470 ohm resistor connected in series with a 330ohm resistor to create a 690 ohm resistor (1/4 watt is fine for these two resistors). That resistor was then connected in parallel with the original 100 ohm resistor.
R trim (100psi only): 2.2k ohm between OIL and GND.
If you want to experiment with your own resistor settings:
I experimented with different values for R2 and R-trim before selecting the values above. If you would like more low end sensitivity reduce R2 and increase R trim. I looked at R2 values between 50 and 150 ohms and R trim values between 300 ohms and infinity (factory trim, no resistor). A lower value for R2 will increase the range of needle motion but the response will be more sensitive at the low end. A smaller value for R2 make the gauge more linear but reduces total needle sweep.
If you are using a variable resistor for bench testing you can adjust the resistor until the needle points to the H mark. Then measure the resistance of the variable resistor (remember to unplug it before measuring). Now you now what resistance will give you the travel you want. Figure out the resistance of your sender at say 90 PSI (I wanted H to mean 90). For the 80 and 100 PSI senders that would be 201 and 163 ohms respectively. Now figure out what resistor in parallel will give you the measured value. In my case I measured about 152 when the needle indicated H. (2200 ohms^-1 + 163 ohms^-1)^-1 = ~152 ohms. At 2200 ohms this resistor as virtually no effect on the 0 PSI position (2200 in parallel with 10 = 9.95)
Bench testing and Putting the Needle in the Right SpotBy now you have rewound the coil and should have the correct resistors on the gauge. All that's left is to position the needle and check our work.
In the car: I prefer to test the gauge before putting it back in the car but you don't have to. Don't put the needle back on the gauge. Install the gauge back in the cluster and connect all the cluster wires. Turn the car to ON but don't start the motor. Lightly install the needle so it points at 0. Start the car and drive it around to see if you like the new gauge. If you do press the needle down the rest of the way and be happy.
On the Bench: This is my preferred method. We are going to simulate the gauge on the car. Very lightly put the needle on the shaft pointing at about the 9:00 position. Based on my experience, when the gauge is not powered and the needle is above the hard stop it seems to want to settle at about the 9:00 position.
Connect ~12V to the IGN terminal. Connect GND to ground. I used a 12V cordless drill battery as the power supply. Finally connect a 10 ohm resistor across OIL and GRD. A variable resistor works nicely since it helps check the full gauge range. You could also just use the gauge if it's out of the car.
When you connect all this up you should see the needle move. When it stabilizes pull it off the shaft and reposition it so it points at the Low tick mark.
If you are using a variable resistor you can simply dial up the resistance until the needle points at each of the tick marks. I got a very nice 15 turn 0-2K variable resistor from Radio Shack. Measure the resistance of the variable resistor and convert that back into oil pressure. I used the following formula to convert oil pressure to resistance R=10+(oil pressure/100)*170. Now you know what each tick mark means! So even if you choose something other than 0, 30, 60, 90 you will still know what each tick mark actually means.
At this point you can also decide if you would like to increase or decrease the range of motion or change the response of the gauge via changes to R2 and R-trim.
I know itís a number of steps but you end up with an oil pressure gauge that works!
|Why the update?
When I originally modified my gauge I noticed a delay when starting. When I would turn on the car it might take a few seconds before the gauge showed any oil pressure. As soon as it started to move it worked perfectly. It also always seemed to take longer to wake up on a cold morning. I was never really able to figure out why but I made some changes to my winding to try to improve the issue. This resulted in a few more coils that needed to be wound and the use of the trim resistor.
Well it turns out the delay wasn't electrical at all. A small bit of tape residue had found it's way onto my needle's stop post. The delay was just the time it took to get the needle to un-stick itself! With that in mind I decided to simplify the procedures. The gauge now has just three coils (The first version had 5). The new versions no longer need the trim resistor (but I was too lazy to edit the pictures). I basically just reverted back to the design I was using before I tried to deal with the start up delay problem.
So that's why I've updated the page.